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Grapefruit is a subtropical citrus tree known for its sour to semi-sweet fruit, an 18th-century hybrid first bred in Barbados.  When found, it was named the "forbidden fruit"; and the grapefruit is a large, dimpled, round citrus fruit. It is likely to be a cross between a pomelo or shaddock (Citrus grandis, a large Malaysian citrus) and a sweet orange. Others believe the grapefruit may have arisen as a mutation of another type of citrus tree. The fruit grows in clusters similar to grapes, and this may be the reason for the name “grapefruit”. Noteworthy cultivated varieties of grapefruit include: Duncan (white, seeded); Marsh (seedless); Foster (pink, seeded); Thompson (pink, seedless); and redblush (red, seedless).

These evergreen trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters tall, although they can reach 13–15 meters. The leaves are dark green, long and thin. It produces 5 cm white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and largely an oblate spheroid; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm. The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink and red pulps of varying sweetness.

Grapefruit is an evergreen, medium-sized tree grown for its fruit. It grows upto 15 meters in height and bears numerous yellow-orange fruits in clusters during each season. It is, in fact, a natural hybridization of pomelo and orange.

It was first discovered in the forests of Caribbean island, Barbados. Today, it is one of the widely cultivated fruits in the United States, particularly in Florida, California, and the other semi-tropical Southern states.

Grapefruit is oblate in shape, ranges in diameter from 3 to 5 inches and can weigh up to 150 g. Characteristically, it has thick, tough skin than that in the oranges. Inside, the fruit is segmented into arils as in other citrus fruits. Its arils are very juicy, acidic, and varying in color depending on the cultivars, which could be white, pink and red of varying sweetness. While some varieties are seedless, there may be upto 50 white, elliptical, pointed seeds about 1/2 inches in length in some.

Selection and storage

Grapefruit season begins from September until December. However, fresh fruits can be readily available all around the year now in supermarkets in the USA. Mature fruits harvested mechanically tend to have some superficial injuries. Such small abrasions on the fruit generally do not affect its quality.

In the stores, buy fresh fruits featuring bright skin, firm yet yield to gentle pressure but recoil immediately. They should be devoid of any wrinkles on the skin, should be heavy for their size and impart sweet aroma. Avoid, overly soft fruits with spots as they tend to perish early.

At home, keep them at room temperature for few days or so. For extended storage, Place them inside the fruit/vegetable compartment of the home refrigerator where they keep well for up to three weeks. Prolonged cold storage at temperatures below 10 degrees celsius, however, may lead to chilling injury.

Preparation and serving method

Wash Grapefruits under cool water before eating, in order to rid off any dirt or pesticide residues even though you are probably not using its peel (zest), since cutting into an unwashed fruit may transfer dirt or bacteria that residing within the skin into flesh.

They can be eaten as in oranges. Cut the fruit horizontally into two halves and scoop out its sections using a spoon. Alternatively, make few vertical superficial scores on the skin and then peel it using fingers or with a knife. Remove rind and fibers and gently peel off membranes and seeds.

Here are some serving tips:

1. Fruit sections are a great addition to green and fruit salads.
2. Grapefruit juice can be a refreshing intra-day drink.
3. It also used in the preparation of desserts, jams, marmalade, and jellies (also see ). Its peel can be candied as in oranges.

Health benefits of Grapefruit

1. Delicious, grapefruit is very low in calories, consists of just 42 calories per 100 g. Nonetheless; it is rich in dietary insoluble fiber pectin, which works as bulk laxative. Dietary fiber helps to protect the colon mucous membrane by decreasing exposure time to toxic substances in the colon as well as binding to cancer-causing chemicals in the colon.

2. Pectin has also been shown to reduce blood cholesterol levels by decreasing re-absorption of cholesterol in the colon.

3. The fruit contains very good levels of vitamin-A (provides about 1150 IU per 100g), and flavonoid antioxidants such as naringenin, and naringin. Additionally, it is a moderate source of lycopene, beta-carotene, xanthin and lutein. Studies suggest that these compounds have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. The total antioxidant strength measured in terms of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of grapefruit is 1548 µmol TE/100 g.

4. Further, vitamin A is also required maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in vitamin-A, and flavonoids helps to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.

5. It is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin-C; providing about 52% of DRI. Vitamin-C is a powerful natural anti-oxidant and helps the body develop resistance against infectious agents and scavenge harmful free radicals. It, furthermore, is required for the maintenance of healthy connective tissue and aids in early wound healing. It also facilitates dietary iron absorption in the intestine.

6. 100 g of fresh fruit contains about 135 mg of potassium electrolyte. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids, helps regulate heart rate and blood pressure through countering sodium effects.

7. Red varieties of grapefruits are especially rich in powerful flavonoid antioxidant, lycopene. Studies shows that lycopene protects skin from dangerous UV rays, and offers protection against prostate cancer.

8. Additionally, it contains moderate levels of B-complex group of vitamins such as folates, riboflavin, pyridoxine, and thiamin in addition to some resourceful minerals such as iron, calcium, copper, and phosphorus.

Read More at Wikipedia.
Recipe using Grapefruit see Here and Here and Here.

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