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Parmesan Cheese

Parmesan Cheese
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Parmigiano-Reggiano, called Parmesan in English after the French name for it, is a hard, granular cheese, cooked but not pressed, named after the producing areas near Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, and Bologna (all in Emilia-Romagna), and Mantova (in Lombardia), Italy. Under Italian law, only cheese produced in these provinces may be labelled "Parmigiano-Reggiano", and European law classifies the name as a protected designation of origin.

Parmigiano is the Italian adjective for Parma. Reggiano is the Italian adjective for Reggio Emilia. The name Parmesan is used for cheeses which imitate Parmigiano-Reggiano, along with phrases such as "Italian hard cheese".

Parmigiano-Reggiano is commonly grated over pasta dishes, stirred into soups and risottos, and eaten on its own. It is often shaved or grated over other dishes.

Slivers and chunks of the hardest parts of the crust are sometimes simmered in soup. They can also be just roasted and eaten as a snack.

The hollowed-out crust of a whole wheel of Parmigiano can be used as a serving pot for large groups.
Parmigiano has many aroma-active compounds, including various aldehydes and butyrates. Butyric acid and isovaleric acid together are sometimes used to imitate the dominant aromas.

Parmigiano is also particularly high in glutamate, containing as much as 1.2 g of glutamate per 100 g of cheese, making it the naturally produced food with the second highest level of glutamate, after Roquefort cheese. The high concentration of glutamate explains the strong umami taste of Parmigiano.

Parmigiano cheese typically contains cheese crystals, semi-solid to gritty crystalline spots that at least partially consist of the amino acid tyrosine.

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Nutrition Data for Cheese, parmesan, hard (01033)

NutrientNutrient value per 100 gm1 oz1 cubic inch5 package (5 oz)
Water29.16 g8.26686 g3.00348 g41.4072 g
Energy392 kcal111.132 kcal40.376 kcal556.64 kcal
Protein35.75 g10.135125 g3.68225 g50.765 g
Total lipid (fat)25.83 g7.322805 g2.66049 g36.6786 g
Carbohydrate, by difference3.22 g0.91287 g0.33166 g4.5724 g
Fiber, total dietary0 g0 g0 g0 g
Sugars, total0.8 g0.2268 g0.0824 g1.136 g
NutrientNutrient value per 100 gm1 oz1 cubic inch5 package (5 oz)
Calcium, Ca1184 mg335.664 mg121.952 mg1681.28 mg
Iron, Fe0.82 mg0.23247 mg0.08446 mg1.1644 mg
Magnesium, Mg44 mg12.474 mg4.532 mg62.48 mg
Phosphorus, P694 mg196.749 mg71.482 mg985.48 mg
Potassium, K92 mg26.082 mg9.476 mg130.64 mg
Sodium, Na1376 mg390.096 mg141.728 mg1953.92 mg
Zinc, Zn2.75 mg0.779625 mg0.28325 mg3.905 mg
NutrientNutrient value per 100 gm1 oz1 cubic inch5 package (5 oz)
Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid0 mg0 mg0 mg0 mg
Thiamin0.039 mg0.0110565 mg0.004017 mg0.05538 mg
Riboflavin0.332 mg0.094122 mg0.034196 mg0.47144 mg
Niacin0.271 mg0.0768285 mg0.027913 mg0.38482 mg
Vitamin B-60.091 mg0.0257985 mg0.009373 mg0.12922 mg
Folate, DFE7 µg1.9845 µg0.721 µg9.94 µg
Vitamin B-121.2 µg0.3402 µg0.1236 µg1.704 µg
Vitamin A, RAE207 µg58.6845 µg21.321 µg293.94 µg
Vitamin A, IU781 IU221.4135 IU80.443 IU1109.02 IU
Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol)0.22 mg0.06237 mg0.02266 mg0.3124 mg
Vitamin D (D2 + D3)0.5 µg0.14175 µg0.0515 µg0.71 µg
Vitamin D19 IU5.3865 IU1.957 IU26.98 IU
Vitamin K (phylloquinone)1.7 µg0.48195 µg0.1751 µg2.414 µg
NutrientNutrient value per 100 gm1 oz1 cubic inch5 package (5 oz)
Fatty acids, total saturated16.41 g4.652235 g1.69023 g23.3022 g
Fatty acids, total monounsaturated7.515 g2.1305025 g0.774045 g10.6713 g
Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated0.569 g0.1613115 g0.058607 g0.80798 g
Cholesterol68 mg19.278 mg7.004 mg96.56 mg
NutrientNutrient value per 100 gm1 oz1 cubic inch5 package (5 oz)
Caffeine0 mg0 mg0 mg0 mg
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2013. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 26. Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page
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