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Sweeteners can be classified as natural or artificial. The natural sweeteners are carbohydrates consisting of molecules of carbon, hydrogen,and oxygen. A sugar substitute is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, usually with less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, called artificial sweeteners.

sweeteners include sucrose, fructose, dextrose, lactose, maltose, honey,high fructose corn syrups, and polyols. Non-nutritive sweeteners (artificial sweeteners) include saccharine, aspartame, acesulfame-K, sucralose, neotame, and rebaudioside A.

An important class of sugar substitutes is known as high-intensity sweeteners. These are compounds with many times the sweetness of sucrose, common table sugar. As a result, much less sweetener is required and energy contribution is often negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by these compounds (the "sweetness profile") is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are often used in complex mixtures that achieve the most natural sweet sensation.

Sugar substitutes are used for a number of reasons,
  • To assist in weight loss 
  • Dental care
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Reactive hypoglycemia

Read more at Wikipedia
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